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Francis; it measures about twenty inches in length and ten in width. To the first orders have been gradually added the second and third orders and the oblates, who receive the proper habit from the first orders.
In the Constitutions of the Carmelite Order of 1369 (Cod. Third order use of the full habit Early in the Middle Ages numerous lay persons had already joined the Benedictine Order as oblates, these often received from the first order the entire monastic habit which they wore either constantly in the world or at least during Divine Service.
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Third order use of the large scapular Gradually, however the most distinctive article of the monastic habit, the scapular, was given, and is in an ever smaller form.
It has thus come to pass that the third orders for the laity, such as those of the Franciscans, Servites and Dominicans, wear today as their special badge and habit a "large" scapular, consisting essentially of two segments of woollen cloth (about four and a half inches long and two and three eighths inches broad in the case of the Franciscan scapular, much longer and broader in the case of the Carmelite although no particular length or breadth is prescribed) connected with each other by two strings or bands.
By the Decree of the Sacred Congregation of Bishops and Regulars of 20 December, 1616, it was declared that the Bizzoche who lived in the houses of relatives (and thus quite without restraint in the world), might wear the tertiary habit, but without supriectum, sottogola , and patientia (i.e., without veil, pectorale, and scapular).
In the revised statutes of the Oblates of the Benedictine Order, confirmed in 18, it is stated in conclusion: "The Oblates may be buried in the black habit of the order, with scapular and girdle, wherever the conditions allow the fulfilment of this pious wish". Francis of 1221 (also in that of 1289), the investment is fairly exactly described, but there is no mention of a scapular. Dominic in the first half of the thirteenth century prescribed likewise a formal and complete investment. As in the case of the other third orders this made its appearance later, until finally it became usual to wear the scapular under one's ordinary clothing instead of the full habit of the order.
It was thus natural to term the scapular jugum Christi (the yoke of Christ ); it was also called scutum (shield), as it was laid over the head, which it originally covered and protected with one portion (from which the hood afterwards developed). Perhaps even the small scapular of the confraternity (that for the laity ) may be suggested, since the reference is to persons coming from the world ( novices ) who should have this small scapular.
Small nighttime scapulars In the rules of the religious it is expressly prescribed under penalties that even at night the scapular must be worn, e.g. For night the Carmelites have now a special smaller scapular which, however, is still much larger than the so-called great scapular of the Third Order of St. 33 v.) it is appointed that each candidate of the order must bring with him his bed and in addition: "habeat etiam cum rauba sua parvum scapulare cum tunica ad jacendum" (cf. It is likewise prescribed in the Constitutions of the Servites of 1257 "quod nullus accedat sine scapulari et tunica dormitum". Benedict had declared in his Rule XXII: "Vestiti dormiant et cincti cingulis aut funibus", it was prescribed in the "Consuetudines sublacenses": "Vestiti autem dormiant id est ad minus in una tunica et scapulari et cincti ut sint parati surgere" (Albers, "Consuet. This scapular thus appears to have been a portion of the night clothing of monks.
Other orders and numerous religious congregations (both male and female ) have also adopted the scapular from the monastic orders. Description It consists essentially of a piece of cloth about the width of the breast from one shoulder to the other (i.e.
about fourteen to eighteen inches), and of such a length that it reaches not quite to the feet in front and behind. In the middle is the opening for the head, the scapular thus hanging down from two narrow connecting segments resting on the shoulders. From this developed the special monastic garment, to which a hood could be fastened at the back.